Knowledge The function of UEM, UPP, FLASH, RAM

UEM (Universal Energy Management)

UEM Description

UEM Inside there are several important roles as the Energy Management Cell Phone. Unlike Nokia DCT3, UEM is a combination of several ASICs such as: CCONT, COBBA, chaps and UI DRIVERS.

UEM stands for Universal Energy Management, in accordance with its name, UEM has some very complex functions, including:
Crystal oscillator (32 kHz)

Every phone system will be found oscilator small size which can generate pulses at 32KHz,. UEM that will provide the voltage and controlling this oscilator Crystal henceforth be forwarded to the UPP.
32 kHz RC oscillator Startup

While mobile phones in Power-down state, the RF Processor Clock can not be given to the UPP, the phone can power-up is needed for Logic System Clock to the UPP. Sleep is needed for this purpose produced by the Crystal Clock oscilator 32 kHz.
Real time clock logic

Clock, Date, Alarm Clock Logic required given by Cristal oscilator 32kHz.
Regulators Baseband & RF

UEM is given by the main battery voltage of 3.7 volts (VBATT). UEM has role as distributor voltage / regulator to all systems based on voltage needs to be required in every system.

Baseband Regulator:
§ vCore, for programming that requires voltage of about 1.0 - 1.8 Volt - 200mA to the UPP (vCore vCore DSP & MCU)
§ VANA, a voltage of 8.2 Volt - 80mA for the analog system function (Btemp, VCXO Temp)
§ FiO, giving mid 1.8 Volt - 150mA to Logic I / Os (Input / Output Logic: Level Shifter MMC, IR, IC Flash & SDRAM, Bluetooth, LCD,) and UEM Logic.
§ VFLASH1, provide the main voltage of 2.8 Volt - 70mA to IR, Bluetooth, LCD, LED drivers and voltage to the BSI.
§ VFLASH2/VAUX, a voltage of 2.8 Volt - 40mA for FM Radio and other Accesories.
§ VSIM, a voltage of 1.8 - 3.0 Volt - 25mA for SIM Cards

Regulator RF:
§ VR1, a voltage of 4.75 Volt - 10 mA to the VCP
§ VR2, a voltage of 2.78 Volts - 100 mA to: VRF_TX, MODOUTP_G_TX, MODOUTM_G_TX, MODOUTP_P_TX, MODOUTM_P_TX,
§ VR3, a voltage of 2.78 Volt - 20 mA to: VDIG, Clock Out VCTXO (OSC 26MHz)
§ VR4, a voltage of 2.78 Volt - 50 mA to: VRF_RX, VF_RX, VPAB_VLNA
§ VR5, a voltage of 2.78 Volt - 50 mA to VPLL, VLO, VPRE,
§ VR6, a voltage of 2.78 Volt - 50 mA to VRXBB
§ VR7, a voltage of 2.78 Volt - 45 mA to: VCO,
Charging functions

Cell Phone Battery charging process is controlled by the UEM. UEM has stored therein Charging Control that serves as the setting Battery charging process. The phone will automatically decide the current from the charger to Battery Battery voltage when the voltage has reached the maximum limit Charger although still connected to the phone, otherwise if the Battery voltage below the maximum voltage then the current from the charger will continue to be given to the Battery.
11-channel A / D converter (MCU controlled)

In the UEM stored 11Channels analog to digital converter used for bandgap reference and voltage reference, this section will measure the BSI, Btemp, Vcharge.
oBattery Voltage Measurement A / D Channel (Internal)
oCharger Voltage Measurement A / D Channel (Internal)
Current oCharger Measurement A / D Channel (external)
oBattery Temperature Measurement A / D Channel (external)
oBattery Size Measurement A / D Channel (external)
OLED Temperature measurement A / D Channel (external)
Interface FBUS and MBUS

FBUS & MBUS is used to transfer data from computer to phone, such as process (Flash Programming), File Manager, etc.. Those data will then be entered into the UPP and flash IC.
Security Logic (Watchdog)

Watchdog stored in UEM, first used for controlling the system power-on and power-down. Both are used to block the IMEI security and storage, Watchdog will control ROM IMEI in UEM IMEI is stored in the IC flash, if there is a difference between the IMEI in UEM IMEI and IMEI in Flash then the Watchdog will perform Power-Down within 32mS.
FLASH memory for code imei

Inside there UEM ROM used to store the IMEI data. IMEI data storage properties are OTP (One Time Programming) where the IMEI data can be written only once and can not be removed or replaced, therefore the former or never written UEM IMEI can not be used to other phones except when the IMEI is located in the IC Flash can be equated with the IMEI that is on UEM (Calulate Flash), this matter will be discussed in Chapters Software.
When the ROM was in this troubled or Corupt UEM UEM then this can not be used again and can not be repaired again, normally displays IMEI ????????? where the IMEI which is different from the UEM IMEI is supposed although there is only one number was different.
IR interface level shifters

Used to Infra red driver and the regulator, the data is subsequently forwarded to the UPP akn.
LED Interface, Buzzer and vibrator

Vibrator, Keyboad LED, LCD LED Driver UI Subsystem is controlled by residing within UEM. This driver commands to the UI provided by the UPP, UPP only give a very low voltage is required drivers to deliver enough current to the vibrator, Keyboad LED, LED LCD.
Audio codec

Earphone, Microphone, IHF Speaker, Handsfree can function as there are subsystems Audio Codec stored on UEM. This subsystem is used to modify the data signal digital information into audio signals, so that the audio signal can be heard by humans is needed strengthening (Audio Amplyfier) before forwarded to the speaker and microphone, the audio signal has a frequency of 20Hz to 20KHz.
SIM interface

SIM Card is the active component which has a microchip in it, each of which is the active component is required to supply voltage, the voltage provided by the UEM SIM Card from Baseband Regulator Subsystem 1.8 Volt - 3Volt, while the SIM Clock, Reset SIM, SIM I / O data provided through the Subsystem Interface, which has kept the SIM SIM Interface Detector, SIM and SIM IF IF Driver.
Serial control interface (Cbus & dbus Controled)

This section will control the interface using the data transmission between the UEM and UPP are implemented through CBUS and dbus to MCU Subsystem stored in the UPP.
Auxiliary A / D converted (DSP Controlled)

As a tool for konfersi analog signal into digital signal which is used for controlling DSP Subsystem stored in the UPP, this section will play a role in: Digital Speech Processing and the PDM coded audio.
RF interface converters

We have seen previously that the RF module has the character while Baseband analog signal has a digital character, so that both modules can be continuous with one another, or a translator is needed for a conversion to an analog signal into digital signal (A / D converter) and digital signal into an analog signal ( D / A converter). RF Interface Converter also called Multi Mode Converter which is a series of liaison between the RF module with UPP.

UPP (Universal Phone Processor)

UPP Description
Processor to the fourth generation Nokia (DCT4) using the UPP (Universal Phone Processor) as the center of all activities of computerization. Processor is the brain of the phone system that will work to coordinate all phone functions, including programmed instructions therein.

Nokia DCT4 technologies continue to evolve, WD2 and my heart is the development of technology DCT4. The difference is the type used Proccesor and internal memory capacity is large enough. UPP-WD2 and my heart can process data faster than the UPP DCT4, thereby facilitating features more sophisticated, such as the Symbian operating system, access the Class 10 GPRS (EDGE / BB4.5), Multi Task, TFT LCD, resolution until 2mega pixel camera, MMS, polyphonic ringtones to 48channel, MP3 player, Bluetooth, external memory (MMC Support), etc..

UPP Nokia DCT4, WD2 and my heart basically has the same structure, which distinguishes only specs: ARM, DSP Core (LEAD3) and stored in the cache RAM UPP, of course, the specification of ROM and RAM are stored in the UPP will be different from each other. UPP has several functions, including:

This section is the main brain of mobile microprocessor, this section has two functions:

MCU Subsystem
Subsystem MCU (Micro Controller Unit) is processed by the microprocessor ARM (Advanced RISC Machine and supported by: MCU ROM, RAM Cache, DMA (Direct Memory Acces and Memory IF.

DSP Subsystem
DSP Subsystem (Digital Signal Processing) block is processed by the LEAD (Low Power DSP Enhanced Architecture) is used to process Digital Application (A-DSP) and Digital Cellular (C-DSP). This section shall govern the data traffic information on the overall system of mobile working.

Brain Peripherals
This section will connect all the commands from the MCU and DSP subsystem to the Body.

MCU and DSP subsystem performance is dependent once the cache RAM is stored in the UPP, Nokia WD2 and my heart has a large RAM cache, about 8-16Mbit. Cache RAM is a support unit. All orders are often used by the UPP will be stored temporarily in this section. With the Cache RAM, UPP no longer need to call the same command to other parts. Thus, the time required to perform important commands can be shortened, so that speed of execution will be better and faster.

All phones work the whole system is controlled by the microprocessor. Body is part of a microprocessor that functions as the executor of orders from the Brain. Body parts functioning as Digital Control Logic also like the following:

Interface for data transfer from accessories: eg from infrared and cable Fbus / Mbus which is connected to a computer to transfer data from phone to computer.

SIM Card Interface. The reading of data from such sim card SIM ID, storing the SMS and Phone Book, etc..

1. Interface audio signal to the earphone and microphone
2. As an interface LCD and Keyboard Interface
3. also used for camera Codec

Software used for data transfer to external MCU and DSP are stored in external memory (Flash IC) through a connection Fbus or Mbus. Suppose the phone in Flash, then the data from the computer that is connected to the phone Fbus Block pup will be received by mobile phone from the microprocessor and flash will be stored in the IC.

This section is used for Clock Management for: PURX, clocking, timing, Sleep Clock, etc..

Control IF / RFbus to the RF Module. This section is used to control the frequency band which will be locked to the Base Station by RF Module (PLL).

These three blocks together is used to receive and give information to the RF data module, but previously required konfersi D / A - A / D. This section also determines the speed of data transfer, eg for access or GPRS can also be used as a modem.

UPP can work if you have been given the voltage of 1.5V which is given by the Regulator and vCore voltage Logic (FiO) 1.8 volt dibeikan by UEM. At initial boot process, UPP requires registration 32KHz Clock (Sleep Mode), while the main Clock provided by VCTCXO from RF Processor for 13MHz.

Memories (Flash & RAM)

Memories (Flash & RAM)
UPP will not be able to function fully when not assisted by the memory. As discussed previously that the UPP has MCU and DSP subsystem therein. However, the subsystem can not keep the OS (Operating System) intact, due to very limited storage data, then the extra memory needed to store the MCU and DSP Software (Firmware). Memory required by the UPP is: Flash Memory, EEPROM, RAM.

On your Nokia DCT4, Flash Memory and RAM are combined one IC, referred to as "IC Combo Flash".

Flash Memory
Flash Memory is used for data storage software MCU (Micro Controlled Unit and software DSP (Digital Signal Processor) which is an OS (Operating System) on the phone, usually called (loosely), the Flash Memory be instrumental in whether or not a phone system. Language packs or language preference (on a Nokia mobile phone called the PPM), which is stored in Flash Memory, the phone that do not have a choice of Indonesian can be added or upgraded (Re-Flash) using tools and special programs.

These data not only data stored on the operating system alone, there are also pack the data content or User Data Area is used for storing data or programs by mobile users, including: Phone Book, SMS, Games, Applications, Wallpapers, Ringtones, Images , Movie, Etc.. Flash Memory in this sector can be removed with a manual from the cell phone.

Nokia DCT4 been emulated EEPROM with Flash IC. EEPROM is used for storing important data that have been set by the phone manufacturer itself, the data contained in the EEPROM are: Signal Value tunning, IMEI / ISN, SID, MIN, SP-Lock, Security Code, etc.. Therefore, when the phone is replaced IC flashnya will require the calculation of the IMEI code, if not then the phone will not work.

Nokia DCT4 average have data on the Flash memory capacity from 16Mbit to 64Mbit. While Flash Memory on Nokia WD2 will require data storage capacity is very large, ranging from 128Mbit to 256Mbit, therefore Nokia WD2 will have two to four fruits Flash IC inside.

Flash Memory on Nokia phones that use the processor in my heart, used two separate IC Flash: First, NOR Flash, used to store primary data, this is where the MCU and Security Software IMEI is stored. Both NAND Flash, mostly used to store user data, such as: Sounds, Games, Applications, and also which stores the language packs.

RAM (Random Access Memory)
As a temporary data storage is required RAM, Nokia DCT4 still use SRAM (Synchronous RAM) with a capacity of about 64Mbit who has been in intergrasikan with IC Flash (Flash Combo), while for the Nokia WD2 and my heart to use SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) that have a data capacity of 128-256Mbit separately from the Flash IC.

SRAM or SDRAM given supply voltage by the UEM through FiO 1.8 Volt.